Kako se zapravo na engleskom jeziku kaže “trebati”

Kako se zapravo na engleskom jeziku kaže “trebati”

(Ovaj je post u potpunosti kopiran s Večernjakove Blogosfere. Ispod teksta se nalaze vježbe.)

 

Na Speak Up tečaju engleskog jezika usmjeravam pozornost polaznika na riječi i fraze koje Hrvati često krivo prevode na engleski jezik. Jedna takva riječ je riječ “trebati”. Polaznicima predstavlja problem budući da postoji nekoliko mogućih prijevoda spomenute riječi na engleski jezik, ovisno o kontekstu, a većina polaznika koja sam ja do sada susrela nikada nije imala priliku naučiti njeno pravilno korištenje.

 

U ovom ću postu u kratkim crtama objasniti koja su 3 najčešća prijevoda riječi “trebati” te kada se koji prijevod koristi.

 

 

Trebati kao “should

“Trebati” prevodimo kao “should” kada želimo reći bilo bi dobro/bolje/najbolje ili preporučuje se.

Primjer:

Trebali su poslati nekoga s više iskustva. Ovaj lik nema pojma što radi.

They should have sent someone with more experience. This guy has no idea what he’s doing.

 

Također, “should” koristimo kada želimo reći “vrlo je vjerojatno”.

Primjer:

1000 eura bi trebalo biti dovoljno za vikend za dvoje u Parizu.

1000 Euros should be enough for a weekend for two in Paris.

 

 

Trebati kao “to be supposed to”

 

Postoje dvije situacije kada koristimo “to be supposed to” kao prijevod za “trebati”. Jedan je kada želimo reći “očekuje se da…”.

Primjer:

On bi trebao biti stručnjak za romantične veze. Tako barem kažu. (Očekujemo da on to je.)

He is supposed to be an expert on romantic relationships. That’s what they say, at least.

 

Druga situacija je kada želimo reći „planira se…“. Često koristimo ovaj prijevod kada se to nešto na kraju ne dogodi ili mislimo da se neće dogoditi.

Primjer:

Trebao sam studirati pravo, ali sam na kraju odselio u Meksiko prodavati mango na plaži.

I was supposed to go to law school but in the end I moved to Mexico to sell mangoes on the beach.

 

Trebati kao “need (to)”

 

Koristimo “need” ili “need to” kada želimo reći “nužno j” i “važno je da…”, odnosno da se nešto treba napraviti kako bi se nešto drugo dogodilo (kako bismo postigli neki cilj).

Primjer:

Trebala sam novac pa sam prodala jahtu.

I needed money so I sold my yacht.

 

 

Napomena: Koristimo “need” ili “need to” kada postoji potreba, ali ne i obveza. Ako postoji obveza, tj. ako nemamo izbora nego moramo nešto napraviti, koristimo “have to” (“morati”).

 

 

Najčešča pogreška koju čine Hrvati

 

Od svih gore navedenih mogućnosti, Hrvati najčešće griješe korištenjem “should” umjesto “to be supposed to”. Obratite na to pozornost kada pišete ili govorite na engleskom jeziku—pitajte se, koristi li se u rečenici koju želim reći “should” ili “supposed to”? Svojim polaznicima obično preporučujem da nekoliko dana sa sobom nose mali šalabahter s ovim objašnjenjima i prijevodima, te da svako malo kroz dan škicnu i provjere koji je prijevod u danoj situaciji najbolji (vježbu radite zbog sebe, tako da ne morate čekati situaciju u kojoj ćete koristiti engleski jezik!). Sva sreća, riječ “trebati” koristimo često, pa je lako naći priliku za uvježbati njeno korištenje na egleskom jeziku.

 

Niže su vježbe, prvo bez odgovora, a ispod s odgovorima (samo skrolajte). 

 

Check which translation of “trebati” is correct for each of these sentences. Be sure to use the correct tense and scroll down to check your answers.

 

  1. Trebao sam se baviti glumom. Bio bi danas bogat i slavan.
  2. Njegov bi frizer trebao biti najbolji u zemlji koliko čujem.
  3. Probudio sam se 2 sata nakon što mi je zvonilica trebala zvoniti.
  4. Rekla mi je sve što trebam znati kako bih razlikovala između realnosti i mašte.
  5. Trebala si mi reći da imam salatu među zubima!
  6. Osječam se kao da bih joj trebao reći istinu o Margareti.
  7. Trebao sam za domaću zadaću napisati jedan esej, ali ja sam ih napisao četiri!
  8. Danas je trebalo biti moj prvi dan na poslu,ali sam sinoć pobjedio na lutriji.
  9. Trebala bi prvo smršaviti pa tek onda kupiti manji broj.
  10. Joj, stvarno sam trebao sinoć oprati veš. Absolutno ništa nemam za obući!
  11. Pa gdje si bila?! Trebala si doći prije 2 sata!

 

 

 

…keep on scrolling…

 

 

 

ANSWERS

  1. Trebao sam se baviti glumom. Bio bi danas bogat i slavan. (should have)
  2. Njegov bi frizer trebao biti najbolji u zemlji koliko č (is supposed to)
  3. Probudio sam se 2 sata nakon što mi je zvonilica trebala zvoniti. (was supposed to)
  4. Rekla mi je sve što trebam znati kako bih razlikovala između realnosti i mašte. (need to)
  5. Trebala si mi reći da ćeš da imam salatu među zubima! (should have)
  6. Osječam se kao da bih joj trebao reći istinu o Margareti. (should)
  7. Trebao sam za domaću zadaću napisati jedan esej, ali ja sam ih napisao četiri! (was supposed to)
  8. Danas je trebalo biti moj prvi dan na poslu, ali sam sinoć pobjedio na lutriji. (was supposed to)
  9. Trebala bi prvo smršaviti pa tek onda kupiti manji broj. (should)
  10. Joj, stvarno sam trebao sinoć oprati veš. Absolutno ništa nemam za obući! (should have)
  11. Pa gdje si bila?! Trebala si doći prije 2 sata! (were supposed to)

Questions? Leave a comment! If you have one, there is a good chance someone else does, too!

Razlika između konverzacijskog tečaja i drugih tečajeva jezika

Razlika između konverzacijskog tečaja i drugih tečajeva jezika

Postoji osebujan restoran u Zagrebu gdje kuhari nekada kao da ne mare što gosti žele. Naručite jedno, a oni Vam pošalju nešto drugo, više-manje slično, ali to nije to. Zadnji put kada sam u tom restoranu naručila povrće sa žara, servirano mi je povrće s tave, paprike koje su plivale u ulju, a koje konobar nije znao objasniti. U spomenutom restoranu to trpim, jer kada stvarno donesu ono što sam naručila, bude fenomenalno.

S tečajevima stranih jezika stvar je drugačija nego s restoranima. Ako Vam tu netko prezentira jedno, a servira drugo, nećete se našaliti na račun luckastih kuhara, nego ćete stvarno biti razočarani. I ne samo to, nego ćete izgubiti dragocjeno vrijeme i novac.

Budući da neke škole stranih jezika u Zagrebu u opisima svojih programa često brkaju pojmove konverzacijski pristup i komunikacijski pristup, nehotice obećavajući nešto drugačije od onoga što zaista nude, pripremila sam ovaj blog post kako bih objasnila razliku između ta dva pristupa. Ako tražite konverzacijski pristup, tj. konverzacijski tečaj engleskog ili nekog drugog jezika, čitajte dalje.

 

Nekada i sada

Stoljećima su se svi jezici — njemački, ruski, španjolski, koji god — učili kao da su mrtvi jezici. Učili su se bubanjem i prevođenjem te se sposobnost komuniciranja na stranom jeziku potpuno zanemarivala. Stvari su se promijenile krajem 19. stoljeća kada se pozornost preusmjerila upravo na to — na polaznikovu sposobnost komuniciranja na stranom jeziku. Taj pristup, koji uči polaznika da komunicira na stranom jeziku, zove se komunikacijski pristup.

 

Komunikacijski pristup učenju jezika

Danas ćete teško naći školu stranih jezika koja ne primjenjuje komunikacijski pristup — neke više, neke manje, i sve već na prvom stupnju, od prvog dana. Na svakom tečaju jezika danas polaznici moraju barem malo govoriti, tj. komunicirati na satu.

U većini škola stranih jezika nastavni materijali i profesori konstruiraju situacije u kojima polaznici mogu vježbati gradivo koje trenutno uče. Oni serviraju ciljane riječi i konstrukcije (u nekim školama i cijele rečenice) koje će polaznici ponavljati više puta ili barem isprobati naglas.

 

Komunikacija nije isto što i konverzacija

Gore spomenute škole stranih jezika pogrešno misle da intenzivno komuniciranje u procesu nastave, u obliku kontroliranog uvježbavanja ciljanih konstrukcija, znači da nude konverzacijske tečajeve. No, na konverzacijskim tečajevima Vaša komunikacija na stranom jeziku potpuno je drugačija.

Provjeriti je li ono što neka škola nudi zaista konverzacijski tečaj, najlakše je ako ih upitate koje materijale koriste. Ako su okosnica nastave udžbenici, koji sadržajem, odnosno gradivom prate stupnjeve učenja jezika, tečaj koji se nudi u svojoj osnovi nije konverzacijski. To ne znači da ne uključuje puno komunikacije na satu ili možda čak povremeno posvećuje i cijeli dio nastavnog sata slobodnom govoru.

 

Konverzacijski tečajevi engleskog i drugih jezika

Za razliku od drugih tečajeva jezika, na konverzacijskom tečaju profesor ne servira gotove rečenice ili dijelove rečenica koje ćete Vi ponavljati, nego polaznici vode spontane i autentične razgovore na stranom jeziku.

Po samoj svojoj definiciji, konverzacijski tečajevi jezika ne postoje za početnike niti za one na nižim razinama (A1, A2 ili slabi B1), već su primjereni samo za one koji već imaju solidno predznanje jezika. Bitno je napomenuti da je veličina grupe za konverzacijski tečaj jako bitna jer se razgovor teško može voditi ako ima previše sudionika (iskustvo pokazuje da je 5 polaznika neka gornja granica).

 

Prednosti konverzacijskog tečaja engleskog jezika

Glavna prednost konverzacijskih tečajeva jezika je što Vam oni daju priliku da se  naučite izraziti na stranom jeziku, i to upravo onako kako biste Vi željeli. Umjesto da napamet učite tuđe rečenice, Vi konstruirate vlastite, te uz pomoć profesora nadograđujete svoj engleski ili drugi strani jezik upravo onim strukturama i riječima koje Vam nedostaju. A njih otkrijete i definirate tek kada počnete spontano koristiti jezik u prirodnim razgovorima izvan učionice ili na konverzacijskim tečajevima.

Na konverzacijskim tečajevima stječete samopouzdanje u govoru na stranom jeziku upravo zato što kontinuirano aktivno sudjelujete u stvarnim razgovorima. Valja spomenuti da su konverzacijski tečajevi jezika i zabavniji od klasičnih tečajeva jer su maksimalno interaktivni, što znači da ste cijelo vrijeme angažirani, a temelje se na opuštenim razgovorima koji dodiruju različite zanimljive teme. Materijali su također, po samoj prirodi konverzacijskog tečaja, uvijek raznoliki.

Ako mislite da je konverzacijski tečaj engleskog jezika upravo ono što Vam treba, pošaljite e-mail na hello@speakupcroatia.com ili nazovite / pošaljite poruku na 099/4200 939. Prijavite se na besplatni ogledni sat i vidite kako pravi konverzacijski tečaj izgleda u školi engleskog jezika Speak Up!. Glavna je voditeljica tečajeva diplomirana profesorica engleskog jezika i književnosti koja je ujedno i izvorni govornik engleskog jezika.

Intensive Summer Essay Writing Workshop for Teens

Intensive Summer Essay Writing Workshop for Teens

No, it unfortunately will not be held where this dreamy summer photo was taken :), but the second annual Summer Essay Writing Workshop for Teens has officially been scheduled! If you want to build your creativity muscles and writing skills, get in touch and join us.

WHERE? Medveščak 13

WHEN? June 25 – July 6, (2 weeks), Mon-Fri, 1-2:30 p.m.

WHAT? Students will learn and practice in small groups:

  • How to prepare to write and start writing
  • How to think critically and present and argue opinions and ideas well
  • How to write effective introductions and conclusions
  • How to structure essays and logically connect ideas and arguments
  • How to capture the reader’s attention and how to write so they hear and understand us

HOW MUCH? 1500 HRK

 

Free Creativity and Writing Workshop Held at Bogdan Ogrizević Library

Free Creativity and Writing Workshop Held at Bogdan Ogrizević Library

Did you know you can change the way your brain is wired? Every time you practice and learn something new, that is exactly what you are doing. At this free Creativity and Writing workshop, held at Bogdan Ogrizević’s American Corner this week, 25 students looked at what creativity is, exactly, and how we can build our “creativity muscles” with specific types of writing exercises. Here are some photos from the event!

 

…Getting ready to see one story from multiple perspectives….

 

 

…Assistant presenter…

 

 

…Displaying student writing…

 

 

…Reading each other’s writing…

 

…Shark attack!!!…From the point of view of a fish who witnessed the event.

 

 

…Shark attack!!!…From the point of view of the shark…

 

 

…Shark attack!!!…From the point of view of the victim’s goggles…

 

 

…Shark attack!!!…Another shark version…

 

 

Talking about your education in English, pt. 2

Talking about your education in English, pt. 2

*This post has been copied in its entirety from the Speak Up blog on Vecernji List’s Blogosfera. The material it covers will be part of the book Common Mistakes Croatians Make When Using English, which is expected to be out in the fall (fingers crossed!).

Kada netko prvi put dođe na nastavu u Speak Up!, započinjemo s kratkim upoznavanjem s drugim polaznicima. Tko smo, što smo, odakle dolazimo…Pričajući o fakultetu, gotovo svaki novi polaznik kaže: „I finished the faculty of XYZ.“ O tome zašto me u ovoj rečenici muči riječ „faculty“ možete pročitati u mom prošlom postu, gdje sam se bavila imenicama u razgovorima o obrazovanju na engleskom. Ali tu postoji veći problem, a to je odabir glagola „finish“, jer se na engleskom, kada razgovaramo o tome što smo studirali, ne kaže da smo neki studij „završili“ tj. „finished“.

Kako onda reći što sam studirao/la?

Odgovor na to pitanje je odraz jednog od razloga zašto ja toliko volim engleski jezik, i to je zato jer se stvari mogu reći na milion različitih načina. Niže su različite opcije koje imate kada želite reći da ste vi ili netko drugi „završili“ neki fakultet, s različitim primjerima sveučilišta i vrsta diploma. (Sada ću se na neko vrijeme prebaciti na engleski jer slijedi samo popis opcija, bez opisa ili objašnjenja).

You can graduate:

(*Ovaj se glagol najčešće odabire kada govorite o datumima.)

I graduated in 2004.

Phoebe was just 19 years old when she graduated from college.

He graduated with honors.

I graduated from the University of Texas.

I graduated with straight A’s. (sa samim peticama).

 

You can get a degree:

in something

from an institution

at an institution:

 

Thomas got a B.A. in architecture.

I got an M.A. in political science.

I got an architecture degree before I studied design.

He got a degree in chemistry.

Jeremy got his degree from the University of Glasgow.

Emilija got her doctorate from MIT.

Tomislav got his doctorate at Indiana University.

I got a doctorate in mechanical engineering from a large university.

You can always change your mind and get a degree in something else.

You can go somewhere for a degree/program:

(*Ovo je najčešće odabrani glagol kada postavljamo pitanje gdje je netko studirao.)

Where did you go to school? (Podsjetimo, „school“ je bilo koja obrazovna ustanova, što uključuje i fakultete.)

I went to the University of Zagreb.

They went to the University of Toronto for their undergraduate degrees and to Pennsylvania State University for grad school.

You can have a degree in something:

Margaret has a degree in psychology.

He has a bachelor’s (degree) in sociology.

I have a master’s (degree) in creative writing.

She has a doctorate in neuroscience.

 

Još nekoliko opcija:

 

I studied German. (Naravno da se i to može, ali samo kada želimo naglasiti što smo studirali, a ne gdje ni kako.)

Tomo received his undergraduate degree from the University of Sarajevo.

Stephen completed his master’s (degree) before he started medical school.

Ali zar se nikada ne može koristiti glagol „finish“ u kontekstu obrazovanja?

 

Može. Ali njegova upotreba najčešće ne odgovara ciljanom značenju “završetka” fakulteta. Kada kažete „I finished college“, time naglašavate da niste odustali od fakulteta, nego činjenicu da ste studiranje završili, dovršili, odnosno priveli kraju. Koristit ćete glagol „finish“ i kada želite naglasiti trajanje studija, odnosno ako ste studij završili ranije ili kasnije nego što je to uobičajeno, kao na primjer: „I finished college in three years instead of four.“

Nadalje, glagol „finish“ možete koristiti kada razgovarate o semestrima. Semestar završava kada završava, ali ako ste vi subjekt rečenice, podrazumijeva se da ste taj semestar tada „priveli kraju“. Npr.: “I finished the fall semester will straight A’s.”

Još nekoliko učestalih pogrešaka

 

Najčešća pogreška koju čujem kada Hrvati govore o obrazovanju je bez sumnje netočna upotreba riječi „finish“. Međutim, ima tu još nekoliko učestalih grešaka:

1) kako reći što je netko odslušao

University students take many classes each semester. (Netočno je reći: “University students listen to many classes each semester”, što je doslovni prijevod za „Odslušao sam mnogo predmeta svaki semestar“.)

She took a few courses at Georgetown.

Ili

She completed a few courses at Georgetown. (Netočno je reći: “She passed a few courses at Georgetown.”)

2. polaganje ispita

Students take exams every semester. (Netočno je reći: “Students write exams every semester”, što je doslovni prijevod za „Studenti pišu ispite svaki semestar”).

Ali se kaže: She passed her math exam. (Prošla je ispit iz matematike.)

 

3. pisanje zadaće

I do my homework every day. (Netočno je reći: “I work my homework every day”).


I neki drugi korisni glagoli za kraj

 

I applied to four colleges. (Prijavila sam se na četiri fakulteta.)

The school admits/accepts 1000 new students each year. (Fakultet prima 1000 novih studenata svake godine.)

She was admitted into Oxford University. (Primljena je na Oxford.)

She was accepted by Arizona State University. (Primljena je na Arizona State University.)

I was 19 when I enrolled in college. (Upisao sam se na fakultet s 19 godina.)

I registered for the second semester. (Upisao sam se na drugi semestar.)

I’m in my 5th year. (Na petoj sam godini.)

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

Nadam se da Vam je ovaj post pomogao. Ako imate kakvih pitanja, svakako ostavite komentar, ili pišite na hello@speakupcroatia.com!

 

Talking about your education in English

Talking about your education in English

*This post has been copied in its entirety from the Speak Up blog on Vecernji List’s Blogosfera. The material it covers will be part of the book Common Mistakes Croatians Make When Using English, which is expected to be out in the fall (fingers crossed!).

Kako razgovarati o svom obrazovanju na engleskom jeziku – 1. dio

Jeste li studirali na „faculty“, „college“ ili „university“? Ovo je često pitanje koje čujem na svojim satovima konverzacijskog tečaja engleskog jezika, pa počnimo s terminom college.

Riječ college se ne odnosi samo na privatne srednje škole u Velikoj Britaniji (npr. Eton College). College označava bilo koje mjesto višeg ili visokog obrazovanja gdje se nakon završenog dvogodišnjeg ili četverogodišnjeg studija stječe diploma. Također, ne uključuje samo ustanove gdje se uče društvene ili prirodne znanosti nego je i mjesto za stjecanje strukovnog obrazovanja (vocational college ili technical college).

Neke od vas vjerojatno i dalje muči odabir riječi college u ovom tekstu budući da mislite da bih trebala koristiti riječ university. Koja je razlika između college i university?

College je manja ustanova gdje možete pohađati dvogodišnji ili četverogodišnji dodiplomski studij, ponekad i magistarski. Rijetko koji college nudi doktorski studij, no nije nemoguće. Nadalje, college je manji od university, a ima i manji broj polaznika. University je pak grupa ustanova (schools i/ili colleges), od kojih barem jedna nudi postdiplomske studije.

A što je onda faculty?

Budući da sam odrasla u Americi gdje riječ faculty označava kolektiv neke obrazovne ustanove (npr.: The members of the faculty are all from Brasil), ova me riječ vječito muči u kontekstu hrvatskog jezika. Izvan Sjeverne Amerike riječ faculty, osim navedenog, označava i odsjek unutar obrazovnih institucija koje se nazivaju university ili college. Imena fakulteta u Zagrebu se na službenim stranicama često prevode kao „Faculty of XYZ.“ Ja bih ih radije prevela kao „School of XZY“ koja bi sadržavala razne odjele, odnosno odsjeke – departments. To se također može naći i izvan Sjeverne Amerike, npr. u Velikoj Britaniji i Australiji. Primjerice, University of Glasgow je podjeljen u schools: School of Chemistry, School of Education, itd.

Da se vratimo na college vs. university. U razgovorima u SAD-u se ove riječi često koriste naizmjenično, kao sinonimi, kada se govori općenito o mjestu visokog obrazovanja, s tim da je college zapravo učestaliji termin. Studenti će se prije identificirati i predstaviti kao college students nego university students. Kada netko kreće na faks, prije će reći „I’m starting college in the fall“ nego „I’m starting university in the fall“ (na hrvatskom – U jesen krećem na fakultet) bez obzira je li upisao neki manji college ili university. Isto tako će često reći i I’m starting school in the fall.

…što nas dovodi do termina school

Riječ school, pak, može predstavljati bilo koje mjesto na kojem stječemo obrazovanje. Nisu samo osnovna i srednja škola schools, niti su to samo odsjeci unutar sveučilišta, nego i sama sveučilišta ili fakulteti. U anglosaksonskom svijetu često ćete čuti studente kako kažu „I have school in the morning“, iako se radi o predavanjima na fakultetu.

Isto tako možete, na primjer, reći: I studied architecture in school, i svi će znati da mislite na fakultetsko obrazovanje. Kada netko želi naglasiti da se radi o osnovnoj ili srednjoj školi, to će i napraviti: “I never had biology in high school”. Kroz kontekst se može zaključiti radi li se o osnovnom, srednjem ili visokom obrazovanju.

Još nekoliko korisnih riječi i fraza na engleskom jeziku vezano uz obrazovanje:

I went to law school – …ćete čuti češće nego I went to the school of law, iako se sama ustanova tako zove. Isto tako se kaže i I went to medical school ili I went to dental school, ako želite naglasiti što ste studirali, (a ne gdje ste studirali).

Mid-term exam – kolokvij

Final exam – završni ispit

Quiz – vrsta ispitivanja znanja manje opsežna od kolokvija (nenajavljeno ispitivanje te vrste zove se pop quiz)

Elective subjects/classes – fakultativni predmeti (skraćeno – electives)

Freshman – osoba koja je 1. razred srednje škole ili 1. godina fakulteta

Sophomore – osoba koja je 2. razred srednje škole ili 2. godina fakulteta

Junior – osoba koja je 3. razred srednje škole ili 3. godina fakulteta

Senior – osoba koja je 4. razred srednje škole ili 4. godina fakulteta

TOČNO: She was a high school senior ili She was a senior in high school;  NETOČNO: She was in the fourth grade of high school, ali možete reći: She was in her fourth year of high school

Graduate studies – postdiplomski studiji

Graduate school – magistarski ili doktorski studij ili obrazovna ustanova koja pruža mogućnost pohađanja postdiplomskih studija

Graduate students —studenti postdiplomskih studija

Undergraduate students (ili skraćeno, undergraduates) – dodiplomski studenti

Undergraduate thesis/senior thesis – diplomski rad (i u srednjoj školi postoji senior thesis)

Master’s thesis – magistarski rad

Doctoral thesis / dissertation– doktorski rad

Final paper – završni rad

TOČNO: I need to pick a topic; NETOČNO: I need to pick a theme  (više o razlici između topic, theme i subject pročitajte ovdje.)

Department – katedra (npr. English Department ili Marketing Department)

A 5.0 average – prosjek od 5.0 (čita se “five-point-oh“)

Associate Professor/Assistant Professor – docent

Questions?

Ako Vam neki termini ili fraze na engleskom jeziku, a vezano uz obrazovanje, zadaju glavobolje, ostavite ovdje komentar i potrudit ću se dati što precizniji odgovor na Vaše pitanje. U idućem postu, pisat ću o glagolima vezanim uz obrazovanje.

Teaser: Jeste li znali da na engleskom ne „završite“ fakultet, odnosno nije uobičajeno reći I finished college in 2005? Kako onda reći što ste diplomirali i kada? O tome u idućem izdanju….

Korisne kratice na engleskom jeziku

Korisne kratice na engleskom jeziku

(originally published in Večernji list)

Amerikanci obožavaju učinkovitost. Drive-thru brza hrana, smrznuto povrće, već oprano i nasjeckano, samoposluživanje u supermarketu—sve to pokazuje beskrajno štovanje učinkovitosti s druge strane Velike bare. Za čovjeka koji zna skratiti jutarnju rutinu za deset minuta mogućnosti su beskrajne. Barem se tako čini s obzirom da je čak 20.600.000 članaka na internetu posvećeno temi „kako uštedjeti vrijeme na svojoj jutarnjoj rutini“. (*FYI* Kako? Operi zube dok se tuširaš, odjeću koju ćeš nositi odaberi i pripremi noć prije, prije spavanja programiraj aparat za kavu, postavi dodatni alarm koji će zazvoniti točno u vrijeme kada moraš izaći iz kuće te ciljaj da u tom trenu ostaviš sve i izađeš istog trena bez obzira dokle si došao/la sa spremanjem.)

Moguće da je popularnost korištenja kratica u Americi donekle rezultat toga što se svi volimo osjećati da pripadamo nekoj skupini, što zahtjeva da netko drugi toj skupini pak ne pripada (Ne kužiš kraticu? Nisi„in“.). No nema sumnje da je popularnost, moglo bi se reći čak i opsesivnost, korištenja kratica u Americi rezultat beskonačnog traganja za ultimativnom produktivnošću pomoću koje će oni koji ju postignu jednog dana moći ostvariti Američki San (zaboravimo da je odavno umro, san je san). Kratice korisnicima omogućuju uštedu vremena, a tko zna što sve mogu napraviti u pošteđenim sekundama, nekad čak i cijelim minutama. (Šalu na stranu, moram priznati da sam i ja žrtva ove opsesivnosti i da koristim stotine aplikacija kako bih uštedjela na vremenu kad god to mogu).

. . .

Read more here.

“Topic” VS “subject” VS “theme”

Put most simply, theme in English is like motiv in Croatian.

THEME:
The theme is the central message or the perception that is conveyed through the piece of writing. Any piece of writing, be it a story, poem or an essay, has a theme. In fact, there can be more than one theme; themes can be further divided into major themes and minor themes according to their importance.

While on the other hand…..

TOPIC:
The topic is the subject discussed in a piece of writing, and it explains what a story/essay/article is about. Topics are easy to identify as writers generally use a direct approach to define and explain the general subject of their works. The topic is clearly stated at the beginning of an essay or another academic piece of writing.

For those of you who are thirsty to learn more, we can throw “subject” into the mix 🙂

TOPIC VS SUBJECT
A topic defines a particular aspect that will be covered in conversation or in any written form, whereas subject is used in context to a wider aspect of knowledge. A subject cannot be a part of a topic whereas a subject may have many topics covered in it. However, topic and subject may be used interchangeably if they are used to denote the important aspect of a document, lecture, discussion, presentation or a conversation.

More on theme VS subject:

What is a Theme?

Student essay: How I became an Ironman

For those who don’t know, Ironman is a triathlon discipline which combines marathon races from three basic sports: swimming, cycling and running. It is considered the hardest one-day race in the world. The history of how the distances for each of the disciplines were chosen says that on the island of Hawai, in the mid-70’s, athletes from local swimming and running clubs were debating who is more fit, runners or swimmers. At the same time, Belgian cyclist Eddy Merckx had the highest recorded oxygen uptake, so many people argued that cyclist are more fit than anyone else. In order to solve that debate, one U.S. Navy Commander decided to organize an event that would combine all three disciplines. Since the distance between the end of the already existing swimming competition, which was 3,8km long, and the beginning of the Honolulu Marathon route was 180km, the organizers decided to create a competition which would consist of 3.8 km of swimming, 180 km of cycling and a 42.2km marathon run.

balatonman

I would like to start my story by looking back to some 9 months ago while I was lying in a hospital. As many of you know, a year and a half year ago I had thyroid gland surgery. About one year after the operation I had to stay in a hospital for three days. That was a regular check-up procedure for a health issues I had. The procedure included taking a radioactive iodine pill and consequently spending three days in isolation. The only people I saw during those three days were the nurses who brought me meals and my parents, who were not allowed to enter the room and with whom I chatted through the window. While lying in bed for those 72 hours and I became aware of what a gift it is to be able to move. Therefore, I firmly decided that never again in my life would I take that gift for granted and that after leaving the hospital I would use that human ability to move as much as possible. Also, with a lot of time for contemplation, one strange idea came to my mind. If a human being is able to lie for 72 hours without getting tired, is it possible to be in such good shape that one can be involved in some kind of physical activity for 72 hours without getting tired? Logical, right? I know it is not, but I convinced myself it was, and that thought drove me forward.

ironman

At that time I had already successfully finished two Olympic triathlons (approximately 4 times shorter than the Ironman triathlon) and one half Ironman triathlon. Since I didn’t have a coach, my only source of information about the Ironman triathlon was the internet. Surfing the net, I found out a lot of useful information, among them that the average time to prepare for Ironman is 8 to 12 months (assuming the person was physically active before). Since it was December, that meant it would be possible to apply for races held in the autumn. In addition to being held during that period of the year, there were two more requirements that I wanted the race to meet: for it to be near Zagreb, in order to minimize transportation costs, and for there to be a decent probability the weather would be good, which meant that the race had to be in the first two months of autumn. Surfing through the net a little bit more, I found the perfect date and destination: Balaton Lake, September 10th.

The first period of my preparation was spent mostly indoors. At that time I was focused on strengthening my muscles so as to minimize the possibility of injuries and prepare my body for the upcoming efforts. On average, in one week, I spent five days doing cross-fit training, one day running, and one day swimming. With spring approaching, and by building a strong foundation with muscle strength, I was ready to focus on endurance trainings. So in the second period of preparation my average training week consisted of three days of cross-fit trainings, two days of running, one day of swimming, and one day of cycling. All in all, that was 12 hours of training per week. If I add to that different activities which are directly or indirectly connected with training, like stretching after the training or preparing special food, the majority of my free time was dedicated to preparing for Ironman. Consequently, even though I was enjoying every second of my training, I also had to sacrifice other parts of my everyday life and that was probably the hardest part. Now, I hope, you can understand why so many times I had to turn down your invitation to coffee or some other social gathering. Simply put, the day had too few hours.

balaton ironman

The start of the race was at 8 a.m., which meant I had to be at the start at 7 a.m. in order to organize everything I would need during the race, such as clothes, food, beverages, massage cream, etc. As in every triathlon discipline, swimming was the first one. The swimming course consisted of 4 laps, each 950 m long. Since the water temperature was 23 degrees, swimming wetsuits were allowed, so after warming up, I put on my wetsuit and was ready for the start. I started the first few hundred very carefully, since I didn’t want to be kicked in the face by someone’s leg. Luckily, that didn’t happen, and I could continue with swimming without worrying. After every lap we got out of the water, ran a dozen meters, and then continued with swimming. I had a pace of approximately 20 min/km, which I knew I could almost tirelessly follow during the whole 3.8km. That turned out to be true, and after 1 hour and 23 minutes I finished the swimming part. In the first transition, I equipped myself with isotonic drinks and dried figs and was ready for the 180-km bike journey.

The bike course also consisted of 4 laps, each 45 km long, and it was, given that Hungary is considered a very flat country, unexpectedly mountainous. Each lap had 500 m of vertical distance, so overall it was 2000m of ascents and descents. The hardest part of the bike course was the first 10 km of every lap, during which we reached the highest point of the course. The middle part had a lot of pace changes, since uphill and downhill parts had constantly exchanged. Therefore, the last part was the one in which we could relax our legs a little bit, and let gravity move us forward. As the weather was very demanding, with a cloudless sky and temperatures of around 30 degrees, I knew I had to drink even before I was thirsty. Otherwise I would risk dehydration and it is almost impossible to compensate for that later. So I drank an isotonic beverage every 10 km, and every 20 km I ate dried figs or energy bars, as they release carbohydrates immediately and therefore are a great source of energy.

Halfway through the first lap, where the refreshment point was located, I replaced empty bottles with full ones and continued towards the end of the first lap. There we were allowed to meet our families, which was great since I could break the loneliness and talk with someone. After every lap I stepped down from the bike to relax my legs, and I ate, drank and talked with my loved ones. Those breaks helped me a lot mentally, because I knew that after every lap I had my mom, my brother and my girlfriend to encourage me and supply me with everything I needed for the next lap. The other two laps went really well, and since now I already knew what to expect from the bike course I could create a tactic for when to push more or less. The last lap also went pretty smoothly. The only small problem I had was during the last 30 km. I started to feel uncomfortable sitting on the bike, so I decided to ride every uphill part in a standing position.

balaton iron man

Finally, after 7 hours and 20 minutes I finished the longest discipline, and “all” that was left was for me to run the marathon. The running part consisted of 16 laps, each 2637 m long. Unlike the the bike course, it was completely flat. In the few first laps, I made the only mistake that day, and it is the only part of the race that I regret. I drank an energy gel in the first lap, and I took one more in the third one. Unfortunately, my body couldn’t process so much food, and I started to feel digestion problems a few laps later. It happened because under such great effort, blood is primarily used to supply the body with the oxygen, not leaving enough blood to process food as easily as it can under normal conditions. Because of that, I lost more than half an hour, but after already spending 10 hours in the race, giving up was not an option. I knew this was my only chance to finish the Ironman race, and I didn’t want to waste it. So I proceeded despite those difficulties. I learned something from that mistake, and at the next refreshment points I only took water. Luckily, that proved to be good tactic.

ironman balaton

I kept cutting down the number of laps which were left to be run, and when I finished the eighth lap, it was mentally much easier. I knew that I had run more that I had left. In the meantime, the sun set, and the moon came out. In those conditions it was much easier to run. With a lot of thoughts going through my head, I made it to the last lap, during which I was accompanied by my girlfriend. At that moment, I knew that I was well below the time limit of 16 hours, so we spent the last lap half running and half walking, talking and just enjoying the unique moment. Finally, at 10:20 p.m., after an amazing 14 hour and 22 minute long journey, during which I drank 12 liters of liquid so as to keep me fueled, I crossed the line realizing I became something that 2 years ago I though only some superhuman could do. I became an Ironman. Immediately after the race, I received a finisher medal, which is for now hanging on the wall in my bedroom, as a symbol that, with the support of your family and friends, and with persistent and hard work, any goal, no matter how big, crazy or impossible seems at the first glance, is achievable.

Written by: Marko Primožić

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