Talking about your education in English

Talking about your education in English

*This post has been copied in its entirety from the Speak Up blog on Vecernji List’s Blogosfera. The material it covers will be part of the book Common Mistakes Croatians Make When Using English, which is expected to be out in the fall (fingers crossed!).

Kako razgovarati o svom obrazovanju na engleskom jeziku – 1. dio

Jeste li studirali na „faculty“, „college“ ili „university“? Ovo je često pitanje koje čujem na svojim satovima konverzacijskog tečaja engleskog jezika, pa počnimo s terminom college.

Riječ college se ne odnosi samo na privatne srednje škole u Velikoj Britaniji (npr. Eton College). College označava bilo koje mjesto višeg ili visokog obrazovanja gdje se nakon završenog dvogodišnjeg ili četverogodišnjeg studija stječe diploma. Također, ne uključuje samo ustanove gdje se uče društvene ili prirodne znanosti nego je i mjesto za stjecanje strukovnog obrazovanja (vocational college ili technical college).

Neke od vas vjerojatno i dalje muči odabir riječi college u ovom tekstu budući da mislite da bih trebala koristiti riječ university. Koja je razlika između college i university?

College je manja ustanova gdje možete pohađati dvogodišnji ili četverogodišnji dodiplomski studij, ponekad i magistarski. Rijetko koji college nudi doktorski studij, no nije nemoguće. Nadalje, college je manji od university, a ima i manji broj polaznika. University je pak grupa ustanova (schools i/ili colleges), od kojih barem jedna nudi postdiplomske studije.

A što je onda faculty?

Budući da sam odrasla u Americi gdje riječ faculty označava kolektiv neke obrazovne ustanove (npr.: The members of the faculty are all from Brasil), ova me riječ vječito muči u kontekstu hrvatskog jezika. Izvan Sjeverne Amerike riječ faculty, osim navedenog, označava i odsjek unutar obrazovnih institucija koje se nazivaju university ili college. Imena fakulteta u Zagrebu se na službenim stranicama često prevode kao „Faculty of XYZ.“ Ja bih ih radije prevela kao „School of XZY“ koja bi sadržavala razne odjele, odnosno odsjeke – departments. To se također može naći i izvan Sjeverne Amerike, npr. u Velikoj Britaniji i Australiji. Primjerice, University of Glasgow je podjeljen u schools: School of Chemistry, School of Education, itd.

Da se vratimo na college vs. university. U razgovorima u SAD-u se ove riječi često koriste naizmjenično, kao sinonimi, kada se govori općenito o mjestu visokog obrazovanja, s tim da je college zapravo učestaliji termin. Studenti će se prije identificirati i predstaviti kao college students nego university students. Kada netko kreće na faks, prije će reći „I’m starting college in the fall“ nego „I’m starting university in the fall“ (na hrvatskom – U jesen krećem na fakultet) bez obzira je li upisao neki manji college ili university. Isto tako će često reći i I’m starting school in the fall.

…što nas dovodi do termina school

Riječ school, pak, može predstavljati bilo koje mjesto na kojem stječemo obrazovanje. Nisu samo osnovna i srednja škola schools, niti su to samo odsjeci unutar sveučilišta, nego i sama sveučilišta ili fakulteti. U anglosaksonskom svijetu često ćete čuti studente kako kažu „I have school in the morning“, iako se radi o predavanjima na fakultetu.

Isto tako možete, na primjer, reći: I studied architecture in school, i svi će znati da mislite na fakultetsko obrazovanje. Kada netko želi naglasiti da se radi o osnovnoj ili srednjoj školi, to će i napraviti: “I never had biology in high school”. Kroz kontekst se može zaključiti radi li se o osnovnom, srednjem ili visokom obrazovanju.

Još nekoliko korisnih riječi i fraza na engleskom jeziku vezano uz obrazovanje:

I went to law school – …ćete čuti češće nego I went to the school of law, iako se sama ustanova tako zove. Isto tako se kaže i I went to medical school ili I went to dental school, ako želite naglasiti što ste studirali, (a ne gdje ste studirali).

Mid-term exam – kolokvij

Final exam – završni ispit

Quiz – vrsta ispitivanja znanja manje opsežna od kolokvija (nenajavljeno ispitivanje te vrste zove se pop quiz)

Elective subjects/classes – fakultativni predmeti (skraćeno – electives)

Freshman – osoba koja je 1. razred srednje škole ili 1. godina fakulteta

Sophomore – osoba koja je 2. razred srednje škole ili 2. godina fakulteta

Junior – osoba koja je 3. razred srednje škole ili 3. godina fakulteta

Senior – osoba koja je 4. razred srednje škole ili 4. godina fakulteta

TOČNO: She was a high school senior ili She was a senior in high school;  NETOČNO: She was in the fourth grade of high school, ali možete reći: She was in her fourth year of high school

Graduate studies – postdiplomski studiji

Graduate school – magistarski ili doktorski studij ili obrazovna ustanova koja pruža mogućnost pohađanja postdiplomskih studija

Graduate students —studenti postdiplomskih studija

Undergraduate students (ili skraćeno, undergraduates) – dodiplomski studenti

Undergraduate thesis/senior thesis – diplomski rad (i u srednjoj školi postoji senior thesis)

Master’s thesis – magistarski rad

Doctoral thesis / dissertation– doktorski rad

Final paper – završni rad

TOČNO: I need to pick a topic; NETOČNO: I need to pick a theme  (više o razlici između topic, theme i subject pročitajte ovdje.)

Department – katedra (npr. English Department ili Marketing Department)

A 5.0 average – prosjek od 5.0 (čita se “five-point-oh“)

Associate Professor/Assistant Professor – docent

Questions?

Ako Vam neki termini ili fraze na engleskom jeziku, a vezano uz obrazovanje, zadaju glavobolje, ostavite ovdje komentar i potrudit ću se dati što precizniji odgovor na Vaše pitanje. U idućem postu, pisat ću o glagolima vezanim uz obrazovanje.

Teaser: Jeste li znali da na engleskom ne „završite“ fakultet, odnosno nije uobičajeno reći I finished college in 2005? Kako onda reći što ste diplomirali i kada? O tome u idućem izdanju….

“Topic” VS “subject” VS “theme”

Put most simply, theme in English is like motiv in Croatian.

THEME:
The theme is the central message or the perception that is conveyed through the piece of writing. Any piece of writing, be it a story, poem or an essay, has a theme. In fact, there can be more than one theme; themes can be further divided into major themes and minor themes according to their importance.

While on the other hand…..

TOPIC:
The topic is the subject discussed in a piece of writing, and it explains what a story/essay/article is about. Topics are easy to identify as writers generally use a direct approach to define and explain the general subject of their works. The topic is clearly stated at the beginning of an essay or another academic piece of writing.

For those of you who are thirsty to learn more, we can throw “subject” into the mix 🙂

TOPIC VS SUBJECT
A topic defines a particular aspect that will be covered in conversation or in any written form, whereas subject is used in context to a wider aspect of knowledge. A subject cannot be a part of a topic whereas a subject may have many topics covered in it. However, topic and subject may be used interchangeably if they are used to denote the important aspect of a document, lecture, discussion, presentation or a conversation.

More on theme VS subject:

What is a Theme?

Review of tenses in English

Below is a list of links to explanations and exercises for each of the 12 tenses in the English language, grouped by category. It is recommended you go through them in the order they are listed but feel free to jump around if that works for you.

A quick word on tenses in English

There are 12 tenses in the English language. But if you find this number dizzying, look at it this way. There are actually only three basic tenses: the past, the present, and the future.

We can add to these three basic categories the aspects of perfect and progressive and get tenses belonging to these three groups. Any time 12 seems like a lot, just remember, it’s all just 3 basic tenses (past, present, and future) “spiced up” with two aspects :-).

Here is a visual overview of all the tenses:

Review of tenses in English

Go to this page here for a written overview of all the tenses, with examples:
http://www.davidappleyard.com/english/tenses.htm

Below are tons of links to some reading and many online exercises with the present and past tenses. If you like to learn through watching videos, check out this AMAZING web page with awesome videos made by passionate English teachers: https://www.engvid.com/english-lessons

PRESENT SIMPLE VS PRESENT CONTINUOUS
Reading:
https://learnenglish.britishcouncil.org/en/english-grammar/verbs/present-tense/present-continuous
Reading + exercises:
http://www.ecenglish.com/learnenglish/present-simple-and-present-continuous
Exercises:
http://www.englisch-hilfen.de/en/exercises/tenses/simple_present_progressive2.htm

SIMPLE PAST
Simple past – irregular verbs only
https://elt.oup.com/student/solutions/elementary/grammar/grammar_07_012e?cc=hr&selLanguage=hr
http://speakspeak.com/english-grammar-exercises/elementary/past-simple-irregular-verbs
http://www.agendaweb.org/exercises/verbs/simple-past-irregular-1
http://www.agendaweb.org/exercises/verbs/simple-past-irregular-2
http://www.englishexercises.org/makeagame/viewgame.asp?id=2030
http://www.perfect-english-grammar.com/irregular-verbs-exercise-1.html
http://www.perfect-english-grammar.com/irregular-verbs-exercise-2.html
Simple past – regular + irregular verbs
http://www.perfect-english-grammar.com/past-simple-exercise-8.html
http://www.perfect-english-grammar.com/past-simple-exercise-9.html
http://www.englisch-hilfen.de/en/exercises/tenses/simple_past_mix.htm
http://www.englisch-hilfen.de/en/exercises/tenses/simple_past_statements2.htm
http://www.learnenglish.de/games/tenses/simplepast.html
http://www.learn-english-online.org/Lesson29/TestIt/SimplePast.htm
http://www.rong-chang.com/ex/exeasy/low_past_tense02.htm
http://www.esl-lounge.com/student/grammar/1g80-elementary-past-simple-regular-and-irregular-gap-fill.php
http://www.englisch-hilfen.de/en/complex_tests/simple_past1/index.php
http://www.english-zone.com/verbs/irrpast1.html
Simple past – negatives, questions
http://www.englisch-hilfen.de/en/exercises/tenses/simple_past_negation_sentences.htm
http://www.englisch-hilfen.de/en/exercises/questions/simple_past2.htm

PAST SIMPLE VS PAST CONTINUOUS
Reading:
http://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/grammar/simpas-paspro
http://esl.about.com/od/grammarintermediate/a/noncontinuous.htm
Exercises:
Intermediate
http://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/grammar/simpas-paspro/exercises
http://www.ecenglish.com/learnenglish/lessons/past-simple-vs-past-continuous
http://www.perfect-english-grammar.com/past-simple-past-continuous-exercise-1.html
http://www.englishgrammarsecrets.com/pastsimpleorcontinuous/exercise6.html
http://www.englishpage.com/verbpage/verbs4.htm

PAST SIMPLE VS PAST CONTINUOUS – MORE ADVANCED
http://www.englishpage.com/verbpage/verbs3.htm
https://elt.oup.com/student/project3rdedition/level5/unit1/grammar/exercise1?cc=us&selLanguage=en

PRESENT PERFECT
Reading:
http://www.englisch-hilfen.de/en/grammar/pres_perf.htm
Video:
http://www.engvid.com/english-tenses-present-perfect-present-simple/

PRESENT PERFECT VS PAST SIMPLE – INTERMEDIATE
http://www.englisch-hilfen.de/en/exercises/tenses/simple_past_present_perfect.htm
http://web2.uvcs.uvic.ca/elc/studyzone/410/grammar/ppvpast1.htm
http://www.usingenglish.com/quizzes/228.html
http://www.perfect-english-grammar.com/past-simple-present-perfect-4.html

PRESENT PERFECT VS PAST SIMPLE – ADVANCED
http://www.englisch-hilfen.de/en/complex_tests/simple_past_present_perfect1/index.php
http://www.englishexercises.org/makeagame/viewgame.asp?id=1496

PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS
Reading:
http://www.edufind.com/english-grammar/present-perfect-continuous/

PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE vs PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS
Reading:
https://learnenglish.britishcouncil.org/en/quick-grammar/present-perfect-simple-and-present-perfect-continuous
Exercises:
http://www.tolearnenglish.com/exercises/exercise-english-2/exercise-english-30523.php
http://www.englishtenses.com/exercise/present_perfect_simple_or_continuous
http://www.perfect-english-grammar.com/present-perfect-present-perfect-continuous-2.html

PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS VS PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS
http://www.tolearnenglish.com/exercises/exercise-english-2/exercise-english-20766.php

PAST PERFECT
http://www.ecenglish.com/learnenglish/lessons/past-simple-or-past-perfect

ALL PAST TENSES – MIXED
http://www.englishpage.com/verbpage/verbs12.htm
http://webs.schule.at/website/Exercises/Tenses1.htm
https://english.lingolia.com/en/grammar/tenses-comparison/past-tenses/exercises/articles/past-tenses-mixed-exercise
http://www.englishtenses.com/test/romance_novel_past_tenses
http://www.englishexercises.org/makeagame/viewgame.asp?id=7150
https://elt.oup.com/student/oxfordenglishgrammar/advanced/oegc_advanced_section04/advanced_section04_02?cc=us&selLanguage=en

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